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23-26 October 2015

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6-10 July 2015

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  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 12 augustus 2015.


  • This study was carried out for the European Commission by Europe Economics and Lucie Guibault, Olivia Salamanca and Stef van Gompel of the University of Amsterdam (IViR). 
    ISBN 9789279471629
    DOI: 10.2759/834167

    See also:

    This study analyses the current situation regarding the level of remuneration paid to authors and performers in the music and audio-visual sectors. We compare, from both a legal and economic perspective, the existing national systems of remuneration for authors and performers and identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of those systems for them. We also explore the need to harmonise mechanisms affecting the remuneration of authors and performers, and to identify which ones are the best suited to achieve this. Their potential impact on distribution models and on the functioning of the Internal Market is also examined. Finally, the study outlines a series of policy recommendations based on the analysis conducted.
    The information and views set out in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the Commission. The Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this report. Neither the Commission nor any person acting on the Commission’s behalf may be held responsible for the use which may be made of the information contained therein.


  • 14 July 2015.
    This paper explores the social, demographic and attitudinal basis of consumer support to a change from the status quo in digital cultural distribution. First we identify how different online and offline, legal and illegal, free and paying content acquisition channels are used in the Dutch media market using a cluster-based classification of respondents according to their cultural consumption. Second, we assess the effect of cultural consumption on the support to the introduction of a Copyright Compensation System (CCS), which, for a small monthly fee would legalize currently infringing online social practices such as private copying from illegal sources and online sharing of copyrighted works. Finally, we link these two analyses to identify the factors that drive the dynamics of change in digital cultural consumption habits.


  • In dit rapport doen de onderzoekers tien aanbevelingen voor het toezicht op geheime diensten. Zo moet rechterlijke controle bij het toezicht de voorkeur hebben. Ook moet meer openheid worden gegeven over de uitoefening van bevoegdheden, onder meer door het publiceren van statistische gegevens.
    De aanbevelingen vloeien voort uit een analyse van Europese mensenrechtenuitspraken van de afgelopen decennia. De onderzoekers hebben hiertoe vonnissen van het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens en het Hof van Justitie van de Europese Unie bestudeerd. De onderzoekers hebben zich vooral gericht op het onderscheppen van communicatie, maar de aanbevelingen zijn ook toepasbaar bij het toezicht op andere gebieden.

    In this report, the researchers offer ten policy recommendations for oversight on intelligence services. Recommendations include that intelligence services should be subject to independent, prior oversight and that governments should be transparent about the exercise of surveillance powers.
    The recommendations are based on an analysis of European human rights jurisprudence of the past decades. The researchers have studied decisions of the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union. The researchers mostly focused on the interception of communication, but the policy recommendations are also applicable to oversight on other areas.


  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 15 juli 2015.


  • Amsterdam, juli 2015, SEO Economisch Onderzoek, 2015-33.
    In opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken.
    ISBN: 9789067337793.

    Op 31 december 2016 lopen de huidige 2100 MHz-vergunningen van KPN, Vodafone en T-Mobile af. Deze vergunningen worden verlengd, in beginsel tot 1 januari 2021. Op grond van het geldende reguleringskader is de vergunninghouder bij verlenging van een vergunning een vergoeding aan de Staat verschuldigd.
    Dit rapport onderzoekt de wijze waarop de waarde van verlenging binnen de beleidsmatige en procedurele randvoorwaarden te bepalen is en berekent verlengingsprijzen aan de hand van de voorgestelde methode. De uitkomst van de multibandveiling eind 2012 neemt daarbij een centrale rol in, en wordt gecombineerd met een model voor de ontwikkeling van de EBITDA over de looptijd.
    Om de verlengingsprijs voor 2100 MHz-vergunningen te berekenen, is de bruikbaarheid van de prijzen in de multibandveiling voor 2100 MHz-vergunningen onderzocht alsmede die van de prijzen voor 1800 MHz-vergunningen. Het rapport concludeert dat een verlengingsprijs op basis van de 2100 MHz-band aannemelijk een ondergrens vormt van de juiste verlengingsprijs en die op basis van de 1800 MHz-band een bovengrens, waarbij het in de rede ligt uit te gaan van het midden van deze bandbreedte.
    Dit leidt bij een verlengingsduur van vier jaar tot een verlengingsprijs van €5.907.000 miljoen voor een vergunning van 2 × 5 MHz. Voor alle drie de partijen geldt een verlengingsprijs op basis van een bezit van 2 × 20 MHz.
    De ontwikkelde methodiek zal als basis dienen voor de ministeriële regeling waarin het eenmalig bedrag voor verlenging wordt geregeld.


  • Fifteen OECD countries, ten of which EU members, have regulation for fixing the price of printed books. At least eight of these have extended such regulation to e-books. This article investigates the cultural and economic arguments as well as the legal context concerning a fixed price for e-books and deals with the question of how the arguments for and against retail price maintenance for e-books should be weighted in the light of the evidence. It concludes that while the evidence in defence of a fixed price for printed books is slim at best, the case for a fixed price for e-books is weaker still while the legal acceptability within EU law is disputable. Against this background, introducing a fixed price for e-books is ill-advised.


  • Case report.

    In the YS. and M. and S. judgment, the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled on three procedures in which Dutch judges asked for clarification on the right of asylum seekers to have access to the documents regarding the decision on asylum applications. The judgment is relevant for interpreting the concept of personal data and the scope of the right of access under the Data Protection Directive, and the right to good administration in the eu Charter of Fundamental Rights. At first glance, the judgment seems disappointing from the viewpoint of individual rights. Nevertheless, in our view the judgment provides sufficient grounds for effective access rights to the minutes in future asylum cases.


  • July 9, 2015, Amsterdam Law School Research Paper No. 2015-30.
    Also available at SSRN.

    In line with the overall trend individuals’ personal affairs, too, are composed of digital records to an increasing amount. At about the same time, the era of local storage in end user equipment is about to give way to remote computing where data resides on third party equipment (cloud computing). Once information, and even the most personal one, is no longer stored on personal equipment the relationship between individual users and their digital assets belonging to them is becoming increasingly abstract.
    This contribution focuses on the implications of cloud computing for individuals’ unpublicized digital records. The question to be answered is whether - taken together - the progressing virtualization and the disruption of physical control produce a backslide for individual positions of rights. The paper introduces the legal treatment of users’ digital personal records and how a technical transformation in combination with disparate legal protection and prevailing commercial practices are bound to impact the distribution of rights and obligations.


  • We hebben er niet naar gezocht, het is ons in de schoot geworpen: een themanummer. 'Open overheid' en 'open access', die twee onderwerpen hebben alleen nog een verbindende redactionele inleiding nodig en voilà: alles wat een auteursrechtjurist altijd al had willen weten over de vraag waarom het zo is dat we vrijelijk toegang moeten mogen hebben tot informatie waarvoor we zelf hebben betaald.


  • Paper presented at ALAI International Congress - 50 Years of the German Copyright Act: Remuneration for the Use of Works - Exclusivity vs. Other Approaches, Bonn, June 18-20, 2015 (Forthcoming ALAI Conference Proceedings).

    See also IViR Survey Shows Public Support for Legalizing Digital Content Sharing through Alternative Compensation System and the upcoming ACS symposium in Amsterdam on July 11, 2015.

    This paper briefly discusses an alternative legal model to assure remuneration for non-commercial mass online uses by individuals, covered by the exclusive rights of reproduction and communication/making available to the public in Directive 2001/29/EC. Alternative compensation systems (ACS) are legal mechanisms that forsake the need for direct authorization of end-user acts under the aforementioned rights – downloading, uploading, sharing, modifying –, while simultaneously ensuring compensation to creators (i.e. authors and performers) or all rights holders of works included in the scheme. After providing some background, the paper explains the concept of ACS, outlines the legal models and challenges to its implementation and reports on the results of an ongoing interdisciplinary research project on the legal and socioeconomic feasibility of such systems carried out by the Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam. Chief among the findings are the willingness of users to pay for and participate in an ACS, its quantification and, using the case-study of recorded music, the realization that such a model holds the promise of being welfare increasing.


  • Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, Thirtieth Session, Geneva, June 29 to July 3, 2015.
    Study in collaboration with E. Logeais.

    This study investigates the issue of limitations and exceptions to copyright for the benefit of museums, with a view to strengthening the international understanding of the need to have adequate limitations, exploring existing and proposed models of protection, and moving towards agreement regarding specific exceptions or limitations.


  • This empirical paper discusses how copyright affects data mining (DM) by academic researchers. Based on bibliometric data, we show that where DM for academic research requires the express consent of rights holders: (1) DM makes up a significantly lower share of total research output; and (2) stronger rule-of-law is associated with less DM research. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an empirical study bears out a significant negative association between copyright protection and innovation.


  • Kroniek Telecommunicatierecht Prof. dr. N.A.N.M. van Eijk

    KwartaalSignaal Ars Aequi,  2015-135, p. 7808-7809.


  • Key Points:
    The European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights only allows personal data processing if a data controller has a legal basis for the processing.
    This paper argues that, in most circumstances, the only available legal basis for the processing of personal data for behavioural targeting is the data subject's unambiguous consent.
    Furthermore, the paper argues that the cookie consent requirement from the e-Privacy Directive does not provide a legal basis for the processing of personal data.
    Therefore, even if companies could use an opt-out system to comply with the e-Privacy Directive's consent requirement for using a tracking cookie, they would generally have to obtain the data subject's unambiguous consent if they process personal data for behavioural targeting.


  • Kroniek Mediarecht Mr. J.M. Breemen , Mr. V.E. Breemen ,

    KwartaalSignaal Ars Aequi,  2015-135, p. 7805-7808


  • ALAI Conference 2015, Bonn (Germany) 18-20 June 2015.


  • Standaardlicenties zoals Creative Commons zijn een belangrijk middel voor overheidsorganen om het (her)gebruik van overheidsinformatie te stimuleren. De uitoefening van het privaatrechtelijke auteurs- en databankenrecht versterkt zo de publiekrechtelijk geregelde openbaarheid van bestuur. Kan dat zo blijven als het initiatiefwetsvoorstel Open Overheid wet wordt? Het voorstel zet de verhouding tussen openbaarheidswetgeving en intellectuele eigendomsrechten op scherp. Dit artikel beziet de voorgenomen wetswijzigingen in het licht van de tweewegenleer, het leerstuk dat bepaalt hoe privaatrechtelijk overheidshandelen mag worden ingezet voor publieke doelen.


  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 17 juni 2015.


  • This paper discusses whether a copyright compensation system (CCS) for recorded music—endowing private Internet subscribers with the right to download and use works in return for a fee—would be welfare increasing. It reports on the results of a discrete choice experiment conducted with a representative sample of the Dutch population consisting of 4986 participants. Under some conservative assumptions, we find that applied only to recorded music, a mandatory CCS could increase the welfare of rights holders and users in the Netherlands by over €600 million per year (over €35 per capita). This far exceeds current rights holder revenues from the market of recorded music of ca. €144 million per year. A monthly CCS fee of ca. €1.74 as a surcharge on Dutch Internet subscriptions would raise the same amount of revenues to rights holders as the current market for recorded music. With a voluntary CCS, the estimated welfare gains to users and rights holders are even greater for CCS fees below €20 on the user side. A voluntary CCS would also perform better in the long run, as it could retain a greater extent of market coordination. The results of our choice experiment indicate that a well-designed CCS for recorded music would simultaneously make users and rights holders better off. This result holds even if we correct for frequently observed rates of overestimation in contingent valuation studies.


  • June 9, 2015, 33 pp.

    This paper discusses the effects of technological change on joint (copy)rights management (JRM). The economic literature discusses JRM as a response to relatively high transaction costs in complex markets for copyright works. Based on a formal analysis, we show that JRM reduces the average transaction costs per transaction and the total number of transactions under a broad range of conditions. Throughout the 20th Century, JRM was mostly conducted by copyrights holder collectives. Recently, private for-profit online platforms are taking on core functions of JRM. Our formal analysis yields two essential results: (1) the efficient scale and scope of JRM will increase as copyright works are increasingly traded via digital ICT networks; (2) a change from collective JRM on behalf of rights holders to commercial intermediation weakens the position of rights holders, and will aggravate problems with the private provision of copyright works with public good attributes.


  • In deze bijdrage wordt het Google Spain-arrest van het Hof van Justitie van de Europese Unie besproken, evenals de ontwikkelingen na het arrest. Centraal staat de vraag naar de gevolgen van het arrest voor de vrijheid van meningsuiting. De auteurs betogen dat het Hof onvoldoende aandacht schenkt aan de vrijheid van meningsuiting.


  • Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International, 2015, 432 pp.
    ISBN 9789041159908.

    This book provides you with a highly readable overview of the policy issues underlying behavioural targeting, and explains how the law could improve on privacy protection.


  • Op basis van de Wet op de inlichtingen- en veiligheidsdiensten 2002 (WIVD 2002) zijn de Nederlandse geheime diensten bevoegd om gegevens te verzamelen, op te slaan en te verwerken. Hieronder valt de bijzondere bevoegdheid tot ongerichte interceptie van de ether, en er komt een wetsherziening aan waarmee deze bevoegdheid wordt uitgebreid naar de kabel. De precieze uitwerking van de nieuwe wet wordt nog voorbereid, maar het kabinet benadrukt dat er acht wordt geslagen op de eisen die volgen uit onze Grondwet en het Europees Verdrag voor de rechten van de mens (EVRM). De auteur stelt dat de Grondwet en het EVRM onvoldoende tegenwicht bieden aan deze nieuwe bevoegdheid, en dat ‘acht slaan op die eisen’ niet volstaat.


  • Interview.

    In theorie lijkt de bescherming van persoonsgegevens op orde: internetbedrijven moeten mensen informeren over wat er met hun gegevens gebeurt, en doorgaans toestemming vragen voor ze die gegevens gebruiken. Maar in de praktijk schiet die ‘geïnformeerde toestemming’ als privacybeschermingsmaatregel tekort. Om privacy beter te beschermen moet volgens onderzoeker Frederik Borgesius de privacywetgeving beter worden nageleefd en gehandhaafd én op de schop. Hij pleit voor een breder privacydebat. “We móeten dat mijnenveld in.”


  • Personalized recommendations provide new opportunities to engage with audiences and influence media choices. Should the public-service media use such algorithmic profiling and targeting to guide audiences and stimulate more diverse choices? And if they do, is this a brave new world we would like to live in? This article outlines new opportunities for the public-service media to fulfill their commitment to media diversity and highlights some of the ethical and normative considerations that will play a role. The article concludes with a call for a new body of “algorithmic media ethics.”


  • Interview in Het Parool van 6 mei 2015.


  • Opinie in De Volkskrant van 5 mei 2015.

    Het bewaren van communicatiegegevens van alle Nederlandse telefoon- en internetgebruikers is terecht door het Europese Hof van Justitie verboden.


  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 22 april 2015.


  • 17.04.2015

  • Opinie.


  • Gepubliceerd op op 13 maart 2015, IEF 14755.2015.


  • De huidige privacyregels leggen veel nadruk op de geïnformeerde toestemming van internetgebruikers. Met zulke toestemmingsregels probeert de wet mensen in staat te stellen om keuzes te maken in hun eigen belang. Maar inzichten uit gedragsstudies trekken de effectiviteit van deze wetgevingstactiek in twijfel. Zo klikken internetgebruikers in de praktijk 'OK' op vrijwel elk toestemmingsverzoek dat op hun scherm verschijnt. De wet zou meer aandacht moeten geven aan de daadwerkelijke bescherming van de privacy van mensen die het internet opgaan.


  • De Snowden-onthullingen haalden niet alleen wereldwijd de media en het parlementair debat. Ze leidden zelfs tot een Nederlandse rechtszaak over communicatieprivacy. Een principiële rechtszaak over burgerrechtenactivisme, surveillance en politieke intrige, met een verrassende, maar ook teleurstellende uitkomst. Dit moet je weten.


  • Political Advertising Bans and Freedom of Expression dr. R.F. Fahy

    Greek Public Law Journal,  2014, p. 226-228

    In Animal Defenders International v UK, the 17-judge Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the UK’s ban on political advertising on television, as applied to an animal rights organisation, did not violate freedom of expression. The Court divided nine votes to eight, with the majority opinion abandoning the Court’s previous ‘strict scrutiny’ review, and laying down a new doctrine for reviewing political advertising bans. This article, first, examines the role the composition of the Grand Chamber played in the outcome of the case. Second, questions the basis of the new doctrine of review. And third, criticises the majority’s treatment of precedent.


  • Tien privacytrends van 2014 Mr. O.L. van Daalen

    Mediaforum,  2015-2, p. 50-54.

    Het privacyrecht is inmiddels een serieus specialisme met jaarlijks tientallen beschikkingen, vonnissen en richtsnoeren. Een overzicht daarvan is nuttig, maar kan je daarin ook bredere ontwikkelingen ontdekken? Het afgelopen jaar in tien privacytrends.


  • Opinie.


  • Column in Het Financieele Dagblad van 25 maart 2015.


  • Strafrechtelijke veroordeling wegens auteursrechtinbreuk door modefotografen. Geen sprake van debat van algemeen belang. Zeer ruime beoordelingsmarge bij afweging van door het EVRM en Eerste Protocol beschermde belangen, waartoe auteursrechten van modehuizen behoort. Geen inbreuk artikel 10 EVRM.


  • Venture into the future of privacy dr. K. Irion

    ELSA Synergy Magazine,  2015-57, p. 28-31.

    At the time of writing I am at the Computer Privacy and Data Protection Conference, for insiders just CPDP 2015, one of several mega-events with more than 1,000 participants from governments, European Union (EU) institutions, corporations, civil society and privacy advocates, and plenty of lawyers and academics just like me. This is emblematic of the transformation privacy and data protection have undergone from a somewhat dull area of law to a very visible cutting-edge legal expertise.


  • 24.03.2015

  • The purpose of this paper is to explore the legal consequences of the digitisation of cultural heritage institutions' archives and in particular to establish whether digitisation processes involve the originality required to trigger new copyright or copyright-related protection.
    As the European Commission and many MS reported, copyright and in particular "photographers rights" are cause of legal uncertainty during digitisation processes. A major role in this legally uncertain field is played by the standard of originality which is one of the main requirements for copyright protection. Only when a subject matter achieves the requested level of originality, it can be considered a work of authorship. Therefore, a first key issue analysed in this study is whether – and under which conditions – digitisation activities can be considered to be original enough as to constitute works (usually a photographic work) in their own right. A second element of uncertainty is connected with the type of work eventually created by acts of digitisation. If the process of digitisation of a (protected) work can be considered authorial, then the resulting work will be a derivative composed by two works: the original work digitally reproduced and the – probably – photographic work reproducing it. Finally, a third element of uncertainty is found in the protection afforded to "other photographs" by the last sentence of Art. 6 Term Directive and implemented in a handful of European countries.
    Accordingly, the paper is structured as follows: Part I is dedicated to the analysis of copyright law key concepts such as the originality standard, the definition of derivative works and the forms of protection available in cases of digital (or film-based) representations of objects (photographs). The second part of the study is devoted to a survey of a selection of EU Member States in an attempt to verify how the general concepts identified in Part I are applied by national legislatures and courts. The selected countries are Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Poland, the Netherlands and the UK. The country analysis fulfils a double function: on the one hand it provides a specific overview of the national implementation of the solutions found at international and EU level. On the other hand, it constitutes the only possible approach in order to analyse the protection afforded by some MS to those "other photographs" (also called non original photographs or mere/simple photographs) provided for by the last sentence of Art. 6 Copyright Term Directive. Part III presents some conclusions and recommendations for cultural heritage institutions and for legislatures.


  • Empirical Evidence for Policy in Telecommunication, Copyright & Broadcasting Dr. J.P. Poort

    Vossiuspers UvA - Amsterdam University Press 2015, 287 p.
    ISBN 9789056297602.

    See here the table of contents, abstract and summary in Dutch of the dissertation.

    This dissertation contains nine articles with an empirical focus in copyright, telecommunication, and broadcasting. These articles address different research questions and employ a variety of methodological approaches. They all share an economic foundation and the aim to contribute to evidence based policymaking in the field of information law. Topics covered range from the welfare effects of illegal downloading, to those of public television; from the effectiveness of blocking access to The Pirate Bay to stop consumers from illegal downloading, to the effect of adequate legal online services on illegal downloading; from fixed price regulation for e-books, to text and video relay services to enable the hearing impaired to use telephony services; from the valuation of commercial radio licenses, to setting renewal fees for telecommunication spectrum based on an auction. Using these nine articles as case studies, the role and impact of economic evidence for policymaking in the field of information law is investigated. It is concluded that this role is positive rather than normative: legal or social norms maintain the upper hand as guiding principles for policy, more than the economic goal of welfare maximization. However, this does not by any means render economic analysis useless. Increasingly, politicians, judges and stakeholders require economic analysis and economic evidence to make
    informed decisions about new policy measures, to make optimal decisions within existing legal boundaries and to fathom the consequences of proposed legal interventions. Without empirical evidence they may simply assume the effects of a policy measure as an article of faith.


  • Korte voordracht gehouden tijdens debatavond over plagiaat in de kunsten, Akademie van Kunsten, Amsterdam, 19 februari 2015.
    Zie ook het journalistieke verslag en de videoregistratie van deze avond.


  • Wob-procedure van RTL om de concept-Miljoenennota openbaar te krijgen. De noot gaat in op de parlementaire debatten over het tijdstip van openbaarmaking van de Prinsjesdagstukken en over de betekenis van artikel 26 van de Wet op de Raad van State.


  • Zie ook 'Vertekend beeld door afschaflobby bewaarplicht' in Netkwesties, 29 januari 2015, met commentaar van Egbert Dommering 'Niet verzamelen is uitgangspunt'.


  • Lead article in IRIS plus 2014-4.


  • The Court of Justice and the Data Retention Directive in Digital Rights Ireland M.-P. Granger, dr. K. Irion

    European Law Review,  2014-6, p. 835-850.

    In Digital Rights Ireland, the Court of Justice invalidated the 2006 Data Retention Directive, which required private providers to retain for a considerable period electronic communication metadata for law enforcement purposes. In this landmark ruling, the EU judiciary introduced a strict scrutiny test for EU legislative acts that interfere seriously with important rights protected by the Charter of Fundamental Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights—in this case, the rights to privacy and data protection—and applied a rigorous assessment of the proportionality of the measure under the Charter, criticising numerous aspects of the Directive. This article presents and analyses the judgment, discussing its implications for constitutional review and constitutionalism in the European Union, and the substantive and procedural constraints that it imposes on EU and national data retention schemes. It concludes by reflecting on the ruling’s impact on European integration and data related policies.


  • Interview in Het Parool van 2 januari 2015 over veranderende positie van de social media gebruiker.


  • Re-use of public sector information in cultural heritage institutions Dr. T. Margoni P. Keller, K. Rybicka, A. Tarkowski,

    International Free and Open Source Software Law Review,  2014-1, p. 1-9.

    In 2013 the European Union amended the Directive on Public Sector Information, establishing the principle that all available information produced and collected by public sector institutions must be made available for reuse under open terms and conditions. The amended Directive also brings publicly funded libraries, museums and archives into its scope. These new rules on reuse of heritage materials, treated as public sector information (PSI), attempt for the first time to define a general framework for sharing cultural heritage information all around Europe. In this paper we argue that if Member States are not careful, the implementation of the changes required by the new Directive could do more harm than good when it comes to access to digitized cultural heritage in Europe. These concerns center on how the directive interacts with copyright legislation. The paper recommends that in order to contribute to the opening up of cultural heritage resources, Member States should ensure that all qualifying documents that are not currently covered by third party intellectual property rights fall within the scope of the Directive. Member States should also implement the Directive in a way that does not encourage or require institutions to charge for the reuse of works that they make available for reuse. For documents that are still protected by intellectual property rights but where these rights are held by the cultural heritage institutions that have these works in their collections, Member States should encourage the use of Open Definition-compliant licenses.


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